|Understanding Model and Paper Spaces; What you should know.|
Using the Union Command | Joining Solids
Now let’s see how the two solids objects you just created can be joined.
From the Edit panel, choose the Union button and select the objects you want to be joined to, and press Enter. Alternatively, you can type UNI in the command-prompt box. (See Fig.12 from the previous post)
2- Your drawing will look edges-free at the junctions, smoother, and more realistic, as the co-planar edges are now hidden and the form has been joined to appear as one entity. It also acts like one object when you select it. You now have a composite solid made up of two (or more) box primitives. (Fig.13 below)
|Fig.13- Your drawing should be looking like this when using the Hidden mode from the Visual Styles list|
add some geometric forms to our model and do the concept; Wanting it to have a more
architectural look as a commercial building, we will be lightening the
reception hall with a covering dome and providing it with a panoramic elevator
serving the building on the side.
openings along the main façade and nicely decorated by a frontal triangular element
on the top will do the lightning to our office spaces through the glazy windows. Likely, it
is good to provide some big openings connecting the reception level to the
starting from creating those elements, all you have to do is to draw five
rectangles equally distributed along with the 9 units length of the base box.
To do so we will use the appropriate tools, as follows:
1- First, draw a
line of 9 units in length parallel or overriding the similar lower edge of
the model. Type "Divide" or "DIV" in the command prompt box. Then at
the Select object to divide: prompt, select the last line drawn, and press
2- At Enter the number of segments or [Block]: prompt, type number 6. Five-point nodes equally distanced appear along the selected line.
3- You can adjust the type and the size
of the point as you desire in the DDPTYPE tool.
4- You have just specified the exact
location of the five openings you will add to the model in a while. Now draw a rectangle of (0.2x1) anywhere you want in the current drawing. You can do it by
entering REC in the command prompt, and at the Specify first corner point or
we will click any point on the modeling space to specify the corner of our
rectangle and then at the Specify
other corner point or [Area/Dimensions/Rotation]: prompt, we will have to enter the value of (@0.2,1)
to end the command.
5- Start the EXTRUDE command and
select the last created rectangle to extrude it by 1.5 units. We have
now a solid box ready to be used in our model.
6- Now, initiate the MOVE command
and pick the solid you have just drawn from the middle of its lower edge as demanded
in the Specify base point or
[Displacement] <Displacement>: prompt,
and press Enter. Use the Midpoint Osnap override when picking the middle
of the edge of the solid for accurate transportation of the solid.
the Specify second point or
<use first point as displacement>: prompt,
and while handling the selected solid from its mid-lower edge, pick the node on the line already defined in step 2 above.
8- COPY the
moved solid starting from the same base point picked before and make another
four copies of it at the remaining marked nodes.
drawing should look similar to Figure 14 below.
|Fig.14- The openings in the Ground Level copied to their actual places|
A similar procedure of creating those openings is to be repeated on the other side of the building and you should handle it with ease and quickly. If not have a brief look back over the previous chapters to refresh your mind!
Using the Editing Tools for the 3D Solids
You now have
the eight openings primitives, but you still need to define their relationship
to the initial composite model you created earlier from the two primitives
1- Choose Subtract
from the Edit Panel, or type SU in the command prompt.
2- At Select solids, surfaces, and regions to
subtract from .. Select objects: prompt,
select the biggest solid, and press Enter.
3- At Select solids, surfaces, and regions to subtract .. Select
objects: prompt, pick all the eight smaller
solids created so far as per the dimensions (0.2W x 1L x 1.5H) units, and press
Enter after you finish.
4- The small individual solids have now been
subtracted from the whole model. To have a more realistic view of the model
just switch to Hidden-Line mode in the Visual Manager window and you
will visualize your model more clearly.
Creating Complex Primitives
As you learned earlier, you can
convert a polyline into a solid model using the Extrude from the Edit
Panel. This process lets you create more complex primitives thanks to the
options provided within the command.
In addition to the simple straight
extrusion you’ve already tried, you can also extrude shapes thru curved paths,
or you can taper an extrusion as well.
you’ll have to draw an isosceles triangle aligned to the XY working plan (*) of a
newly defined UCS, parallel to the Front
view, and has an origin in the upper left corner of the model, as shown in Fig.15
below. Also, you will have to generate a path along the upper edge of the
composite solid using the 3DPolyline tool (or typing 3DPOLY)
from the Draw panel.
|Fig.15- Path-Extrusion of a closed 2d Polyline using a 3D Polyline.|
two objects created, you still have to apply the extrusion process to them.
1- From the Edit
panel choose again the EXTRUDE tool or type EXT in the command
prompt. Select the triangle at the Select objects to extrude or [MOde]: prompt, and then type PATH
or P from the
following options to choose from: Specify height of extrusion or
[Direction/Path/Taper angle/Expression] <0.0000>:
2- At the Select extrusion path or [Taper angle]: prompt, select the 3dpolyline object
you just created. The resulting operation is wonderfully processed, as the
triangle extrudes directed through its path, which acts as a real trajectory. For
practice, you should give this option a try regarding the number of forms that every single path can create!
Now let's draw the triangular element on the top of the openings along the elevation. First, we
will proceed with the openings; and for that, we will just change the XY
working plan to overlap the frontal face where we want to create the openings.
We will have to utilize the 3POINT method to do so for its easy-to-use and
quicker results compared with others;
will discuss in further detail this topic and how to define and generate
specific UCS with other methods, later in the 3D Modeling section.
Now, from the Coordinates panel, select the 3 Points command, then at
the Specify origin of UCS or
[Face/NAmed/OBject/Previous/View/World/X/Y/Z/ZAxis] <World>: _3 prompts, choose point O as the origin
for the new temporary UCS, and point on the X-axis direction and pick any point
you want for defining the new X-axis as per Specify point on positive portion of X-axis
<1.0000,0.0000,0.0000>: prompt. Finally, pick any point included within the Y-axis as per the
prompt message Specify the point on the positive-Y portion of the UCS XY plane <0.0000,1.0000,0.0000>: which will end the command.
For instance, you can pick any point that is within the
positive-Y part of the wanted XY Plan. Check the explicative figure 16 below
for more clarification.
|Fig.16- The new defined XY working plan to draw the elevation openings|
Now draw the openings, following the measurements shown in
Figure 17 below.
|Fig.17- The suggested measurement to follow to draw the three openings.|
to extrude those by 0.2 to show the difference of levels to the external
elevation face, the same as we did for the below openings on the ground floor.
Review the paragraph
entitled “Using the Editing Tools for the 3D Solids” above, for a more
description of a similar process.
still have to finish with the triangle on top of each of them.
1- With the same current
UCS, draw via polyline an isosceles triangle of 1.0 unit height on the
top of the first opening and copy it to the other two.
2- As for the triangle, and the object is a polyline, then we can extrude it into a solid.
3- Let's initiate
the "Extrude" tool and at the Specify
height of extrusion or [Direction/Path/Taper angle/Expression] <0.0000>: prompt, type 1.50, and press
4- While keeping the workspace set to 3D
Basics, use the Slice tool on the Edit panel, to remove the excess of the prism previously
created —i.e. the hidden part underneath the inclined top of the roof means the object created in the paragraph “Creating
Complex Primitives”— To do so, type SLICE in the command
prompt box. Then, at the Select
objects to slice: prompt, select
the indicated object. Now, at the Specify
start point of slicing plane or [planar Object/Surface/Zaxis/View/XY/YZ/ZX/3points] <3points>: prompt, press Enter to choose the default
value suggested specifying the slicing plane to which the tool will act over
the selected object. You will then be prompted to specify the first, second,
and third point on the plane you want this slicing process to be done; Pick
respectively the indicated 1, 2, and 3 points as shown in Fig.18 below.
|Fig.18- The 3 requested points that form the slicing plane needed in the Slice tool.|
Then at the Specify
a point on desired side or [keep Both sides] <Both>: prompt, pick any point on the desired part of
the prism, which will remove the other part.
before, add a dome on the top of the reception floor, by using the Sphere tool
from the Create panel. Be sure to have the center of the sphere at the
same level as the top of the ground level.
At the end
of this exercise, you should get the model shown in Figure 3 from the previous chapter.
Drawing Standard Top, Front, and Right-Side Views
One of the most common types of
architectural drawing is an orthogonal projection. On the other side,
what we used to call the Isometric View is another type of presentation
similar to the perspective but with a parallel view instead of using a
point of view to create an eye-like view.
If you have created a 3D model of a building using solids as we did in this chapter, you can use the tools described in the next section to generate 2D elevation drawings from your 3D solid model.
This style of technical drawing
shows the Top, Front, and Right-side views of an object, and at worst produce
vertical and horizontal sections of the model. Sometimes a 3D image is also
added for clarity. Fortunately, you can derive such a drawing within a few
minutes, once you have created your 3D solid model.
The first step is to select a sheet
with a title block or to draw one. The title block or commonly known as the drawing label consists of a border and an area in the lower-right corner or else reserved
for notes and other drawing information.
Setting Up a File with a Title Block
Usually, you can create a sheet layout
with a title block from two methods:
A- Choose a template that comes initially
installed in the AutoCAD Library and is stored in the "Template" folder.
You can select the proper file regarding your preference such as architectural,
mechanical, or else. Let us choose the file named Tutorial-mArch.dwt for
its architectural presets which might be helpful to our presentations, in
addition to its metrical measurements adaptation. However, you still need to
import your model drawing onto your template layout to continue working.
1. Type (CTRL+N) to start a new file.
2. From the Select Template dialog
box, select the file named Tutorial-mArch.dwt or else, for the
reasons discussed earlier, and then click Open.
3. Use Save As… to save this file
in another filename as you desire. Let us choose the name of 3D_model_layout.
The second method consists of creating your template by simply switching your initial 3d model drawing from the Model space
to the Layout
, also called Paper space
mode represented as tabs in the lower part of your working area. You can add more than one layout by right-clicking over the name of the tabs and from the menu selecting New layout
What’s next is either applied in the
two methods but we will be adopting method B.
What is Layout in AutoCAD?
in the layout mode, utilize the VPORTS command to create the layout that works best for you. Select from a list of presets viewports. (Fig.19)
is a good idea to give a try any of them before starting your work to ensure
which one is the right for you.
|Fig.19- The List of the Standard Viewports loaded in the VPORTS command.|
architectural layout, you are mainly going to present your project as four
viewports such as the top-plan view, in addition to the elevations and the
sections. You can as well, add another viewport for the 3D view.
So in total,
we will need a minimum of three viewports to have an appropriate layout to help our clients visualize the project in the clearer way possible.
Creating New LAYOUTS and VIEWPORTS
Now you are almost
ready to create your orthogonal views, and we mean by this term, all the views
except for the perspective view, such as the top, front, and back. Side views,
isometrics, and sections are also categorized here.
continuing, remember to switch back the workspace to Drafting & Annotation again
to make access to the commands easier.
Also, it is
helpful to note that AutoCAD’s scales are set to work with drawings created
only with mm or inches as units. So, if you’ve drawn your model in meters, then
the simplest thing is to return to the Model space and Scale everything you’ve drawn
by a factor of 1000.
1- First, you have to set the proper paper size to lay out your drawing. To do so, right-click over the Layout tab in the lower part of
your UI. A menu will display, where you can select Page Setup Manager… >
New… to define a new page setup. Name it Setup1 and make it
2- From there, set
your new page layout to ISO expand A3 (420.00 x 297.00 MM) as paper size.
As for the plot scale, type 1 mm = 1 unit in the related box; you will
use these settings later to adjust your Plot manager setup. (see fig.20)
|Fig.20- Page Setup Manager dialog box.|
Start the VPORTS command and select the Three: Left viewport. Our model will then be shown in three different viewports. At the Specify first corner or [Fit] <Fit>: prompt, press Enter, and the three viewports will fit exactly into the blank white sheet, previously displayed, as shown in Fig.21.
|Fig.21- The Layout displays initially the same model views in all three viewports.|
double-click any of the viewports and choose the orthogonal view you want to
be displayed. Let’s say the top view. You can do this from the Views panel
> Top View in the drop-down list of preset views.
5- Make sure you
did unlock the viewport to allow you to use the zoom and pan commands,
otherwise, the usage of those will be locked. You can do so by clicking the
border of the viewport and choosing No from the Display locked quick
property menu. It is also easy to change other viewport properties, such as its
Standard scale, its Shade plot, or its Visual style from
this menu. Choose 1:50 for the scale and 2D Wireframe for the
visual style respectively.
6- Likely, do the
same procedure for the remaining viewports by choosing other preset views,
other visual styles, and even scales to display.
7- For instance,
use the Section tool to make a section across your model. At the Select objects: prompt, select all the objects in your drawing. Then, on Specify first point on Section plane by [Object/Zaxis/View/XY/YZ/ZX/3points]
<3points>: prompt, press Enter. You will be prompted to specify the three
points that are on the plane where you want the section to occur. You will have AutoCAD automatically create for you the polylines that intersect the
model and the plane you choose for your section. A good idea is to create a
specific layer, especially for the section process to use, and set its color to
a remarkable color for an easy catch-eye. You can also fill it with a hatch
pattern if you want.
To create a
new viewport, create a new layout, or add it to your currently opened one.
the Layout Tab, click on Rectangular in the Layout Viewports panel.
Draw a rectangular viewport as you would a rectangle.
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space drawing (or a part of it) now appears in this new viewport. This viewport
can be adjusted in terms of size, position, scale, etc... As before, clicking
on the down-arrow beneath rectangular gives two more options:
- Polygonal allows you to draw a viewport with
any shape you want. Think of it as drawing a polyline and using C to close
it at the end of the drafting.
- The Object
allows you to turn any sealed object into a viewport; draw a circle and
other options– when you click on "Rectangle" look at the command line. 2, 3,
and 4 options create sets of viewports arranged either vertically or horizontally
within the rectangle you already draw.
The idea is to
create a range of viewports showing various aspects of your drawing at appropriate
and different scales. You can also
copy and paste viewports. They will inherit the original scale but this can be changed
Finally, we will have 4 viewports a top view, a front view,
a section, and an SW isometric view respectively as shown in Fig.22 below.
|Fig.22- You should have this same final Layout.|
And so, we
did reach the end of the chapter, hoping that you by now learn how to
benefit from using the Layout tool in your presentations.
reminder: This chapter introduced you to the power of "Solid modeling" tools in
AutoCAD. Therefore, some of the 3D commands that appeared in this chapter will
be revised again but with further details in the next chapters. Till then, stay
safe, and catch you later!
References in this article:2- AutoCAD© 2002 Complete, Sybex Publications