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Sunday, May 9, 2021

Creating 3D Architectural Models (Part 3)

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Man using turned-on Macbook Pro on white printer papers, Photo by energepic.com from Pexels

We'll continue this article from where we left in the previous post entitled Creating 3D Architectural Models (Part 2). Also, here is the Part 1 from the same topic; If you didn't read it yet, you are advised to do so now! Good luck!

How to Draw Detailed Windows in AutoCAD?

In this section, I’ll perform in front of you how to create typical windows you can add to your library blocks and use later in your multiple projects.

First, zoom to one of the windows on the Northern Elevation. Also, adjust the UCS to match the plan of the view, i.e. the front view. To perform this action, use the Home tab > Coordinates panel > 3 tool. At the Specify rotation angle about X-axis <90>: prompt, press Enter to accept the suggested value. You will now have your UCS parallel to your working plan without having your objects non-coplanar.

1- Switch to the layer A-WINDOWS with the green color; draw a rectangle by specifying its corners as indicated in fig.12, and start the Boundary command or type BO. At the Boundary Creation dialog box press OK to accept the default settings. Now pick an internal point at the area shown in fig.12 and Enter to create the boundaries.
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Fig.12 - Using the Boundary (BO) tool

Five rectangles/regions will be then created.

2- Next, use Presspull and pick the same internal point selected in step #1 and to the Specify extrusion height or [Multiple]: prompt, enter 50 to create the window shutter frame. (the area named 2 in fig.12)

3- Likely, press and pull the area named 1 to create the external frame of the window with extrusion height = 50.

4- With the same procedure, create rectangles from each glass block with extrusion height = 10.

5- Next, create a rectangle for the sill beneath the window. Be smart to exactly locate its position on the inner side of the window, with extrusion height = 125, and set OFF the GLASS-HATCH layer.

6- Use Move (M) to correct any mispositioned location in the glass blocks or others.

7- Erase any unnecessary construction lines you were using to create your model and compare your work to Fig.13.
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Fig.13- The detailed window construction with Shades of Gray style view when done

Now, move the window to the opening in the 3D walls model using the Endpoint Osnap for exact transportation; your window should look similar to the one in the figure below. The style selected is the Shades of Gray.

Similarly, copy the remaining windows to the other openings on this elevation with the Endpoint Osnap always active for accurate operation.

Creating the Ceiling Slab | Learn How to Handle the UCS

Next, we will have to draw the ground-floor ceiling at level 3050 as given in the sample file and extrude it down by -220, as for the slab thickness.

So first, let’s trace the polyline over the boundaries of the 3d walls. To do so, we should switch the working plane and place it at level 3050 above the blue ground level.
Use the Home tab > Coordinates panel > Origin command to pick the lower-left corner on the first-floor level as shown below.
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You are now ready to trace the polyline by following the figure below.

When you are done with the polyline, use the Extrude command (or type EXT), and at the Select objects to extrude or [MOde]: prompt, enter L to inform AutoCAD that you want the last object drawn.

At the Specify height of extrusion or [Direction/Path/Taper angle/Expression] <0.0000>: prompt, type -220 to indicate that you want your extrusion to be within the negative direction of the Z-axis.

When done, a good idea is to transform both the ceiling and the walls solids into one entity by using the Union, solid tool to get a smoother face as in the figure below.
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Modeling the Inclined Roof Floor in AutoCAD

Before we start, let’s take a look at those few tips:

- Important Notes: Make sure before you start this section, to check all the corners and intersections of lines and polylines were right filleted and are defining closed areas to prevent commands from generating errors.
- Mistakes and errors occur without getting you noticed, especially the opened polylines. So, be sure to always double-check this issue, and get your lines perfectly closed to each other.
- It can take you hours before you discover that the AutoCAD error messages are just caused by this small silly mistake! It is only when you intend to use the 3D tools that you will realize that your surfaces aren’t closed correctly.
- The main condition for the majority of those commands to work properly is to be applied only over CLOSED polylines. So once again, be very careful about those simple but essential matters when modeling.
- Likely, always check the Z value of your objects, to avoid the non-planar messages error as well.

Back to our exercise, zoom in to the West Elevation and rotate it (3D Rotate) in the same way you did for the North one before; We have now the side elevation perpendicular to the plan view; Don’t forget to assembly all its objects in one group via the Group command, to ease the manipulation. (see example before)

1. Start the Presspull tool, and select the closed area (A) and extrude it to the point (1) on the front view as shown in the upper and lower fig.14 below.
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Fig.14- The Presspull command works whatever the working plane isn’t parallel to the current UCS.

2. Likewise, do the same for the closed area (B), but note that the (B) face is coplanar with the ground elevation and is in the same plane as (C). This information will help us locate the XY plane and where the extrusion of (B) should be sliced.
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Fig.15- Figure 15 shows the virtual XY plane on which the Slice tool should trim and remove the other part of the solid.

3. Now, switch the UCS to Right from the Home tab > Coordinates panel > Right drop-down menu. Notice the new UCS position is now parallel to the side elevation. With the Origin command from the same previous panel, pick a point on the front vertical right edge of the north elevation. You did now specify the XY plane on which the Slice command will trim the surplus of the solid belonging to area (B), done in step #1.

4. Next, type Slice in the command-line or select it from the Home tab > Solid Editing menu > Slice command button. At the Select objects to slice: prompt, select the solid you want to slice and at Specify start point of slicing plane or [planar Object/Surface/Zaxis/View/XY/YZ/ZX/3points] <3points>: prompt, select the XY option that allows you to set the current XY plane as the slicing plane for this process.

5. Press Enter for the Specify a point on the XY-plane <0,0,0>: prompt.

6. Finally, at the Specify a point on desired side or [keep Both sides] <Both>: prompt, pick a point on the part you want to keep in your model and remove the excess.

7. For further practice, let’s model the entrance lobby with its related roof covering. As we did for the side view, the same approach will be followed here also. Use the Presspull command to extrude the areas (D), (E), and (F) to their correspondents' points in the right elevation respectively. (see fig.16 below for further clarification)
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Fig.16- The depth of the Entrance canopy will be specified according to the side view because all the elevations are projected vertically and horizontally to match the same level on the opposite side.

In the end, you should target the following nice house model with its elegant and pleasant rooftop. (See fig.17) Notice that I did follow the same process when creating the other roof covering over the sunroom. Besides, you can now easily add the other missing windows and doors. Good work!
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Fig.17- The rooftop model in Shades of Gray style

The next thing to do in the coming post, we will have a quick tutorial about constructing an indoor staircase for two floors level with accessories such as a balustrade and skirting.

So, heading to the fourth and last part. Till then, stay safe!




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