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Thursday, May 13, 2021

Creating 3D Architectural Models (Part 4)

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A person holding a pen and pointing at a screen showing an AutoCAD diagram, Photo by Karolina Grabowska from Pexels

 
This is a continuation of the previous article; We'll continue this post from where we left in the previous one with the title Creating 3D Architectural Models (Part 3). If you didn't read it yet, you are advised to do so now for the sequence of the material discussed; Further more, I recommend to explore the other articles from this serie by order of their publishing date: Creating 3D Architectural Models (Part 2) and (Part 1)

Constructing the Staircase | The UCS 3 Point tool

In this section, we are going to learn how to create a simple stair going from the ground floor to the first floor with one leaf. We will need 15*190 height of steps to fill up the total height of 2850 from the ground to the first-floor level which is the addition of (2625 + 225). See Fig.18 below for a clarification of the process.
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Fig.18- Defining a new UCS is essential for helping in the process


Then create a new UCS by using the Home tab > Coordinates menu > 3 Point tool. At the Specify new origin point <0,0,0>: prompt, specify any point you want but always select a helping position for you.

I can say that the wall beside the stair is the best that you can get as shown in figure 18 above.

Next, and while staying in the same command, response to the prompt Specify point on positive portion of X-axis <1.0000,0.0000,0.0000>: by picking forward horizontally any point on the positive portion of the X-axis.

Deactivate F3 to avoid selecting any unwanted point on your way. Then finally, same as before, and at the Specify point on positive-Y portion of the UCS XY plane <7819.8408,9074.4786,0.0000>: prompt, pick forward vertically any point on the positive portion of the Y-axis, which will end the command.

On the segment that determines the full length of the level between the ground and the first level, draw a line of 2850, then divide it into 15 parts using the Divide command or by typing DIV.

Fourteen points (nodes) appear along the line dividing it into fifteen identical segments every which define the height of a single step. (Fig.18)

- Note: You can customize the appearance of those points with the DDPTYPE tool for better integration onto your drawing.

Then starting from the fourth step with the new UCS active, draw a polyline of 190 vertically and 220 horizontally and copy it from its lower Endpoint as the base point to the upper Endpoint as the second point in the process. Keep doing the same as long as you reach the first-floor level.

Using the Join command now will convert the polylines you just copied into one single entity.
While keeping the same UCS, offset the polyline formed by 25 to create the tiles’ thickness, then close the two from both their ends to create a closed polyline.

Besides, join by drawing a line between the lower corners of the stair-line as shown in the next figure below. Offset it by 160 and remove the initially drawn line and keep the new one.
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Now, we will extrude the tiles of the stair by [900 + 25] —The addition is for the tile thickness which overlaps by the same value as well. So far, your work should match the next illustration.
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Get back the UCS to World and let’s create the remaining three steps by using the BO command; pick inside the first step to create a closed polyline from its boundaries and then extrude it by 190. If you choose to keep your current UCS position, you can do that but, remember to disallow the Dynamic UCS  on the Status bar in the lower part of your screen, then use the Presspull command instead to extrude the polyline by 190, as shown.
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Do the same for the other two steps but of course by changing the extrusion height value accordingly.
Next, and while keeping the UCS aligned to the wall, count six steps from the straight leaf and draw a vertical line from it and join it with the other oblique line already there. You just created a polyline shape that you will extrude by 900. (See the pictures below)
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Adding the Handrail to the Staircase

As you can see, I did add a handrail to the model by using simple tools, mainly the Extrude while changing the UCS position according to my needs.
Therefore, you should be practicing using this essential modeling tool for better manipulating and handling it the proper way. For instance, use the Extrude/Path or Direction option to extrude the balustrade section through the oblique line path, and then create copies from it.

- Just a reminder: you can only use, and exclusively lines, 2D-3D polylines for applying the path or direction options; Other objects’ types are NOT allowed.

Congratulations!
You did reach the end of this section by completing the staircase creation.
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Fig.19- The final staircase model featuring in the Shades of Gray style View

References in this chapter:

- AutoCAD 2002 Complete - Sybex Edition
- AutoCAD 2018, For Architectural Design - Tutorial Books Edition
- Photos Exclusively for the AutoCAD Tutorial Course – Author: Nadim Maani, Architects





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